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Here is a bibliography of SCRABBLE-related scholarly research of which we are aware. To add to this list, please contact us at

Computer Science

  • Appel, Andrew W. and Guy J. Jacobson. "The world's fastest Scrabble program." Communications of the ACM 31, no. 5 (1988): 572–578.
  • Chapleau, S., and G. Lapalme. "Athéna: un programme champion de scrabble duplicaté." Technique et science informatiques 2, no. 4 (1983): 249–256.
  • de Bernardo, Guillermo, Ana Cerdeira-Pena, Oscar Pedreira, A. S. Places, and Diego Seco. "Scrabble. gz: A web-based collaborative game to promote the galician language." In Advances in Computer-Human Interactions, 2009. ACHI'09. Second International Conferences on, pp. 142-147. IEEE, 2009.
  • Frank, Alan. "Brute force search in games of imperfect information." Heuristic Programming in Artificial Intelligence 2, no. 8 (1990): 204-209.
  • Gonzalez Romero, Alejandro, and René Alquezar. "Building Policies for Scrabble." In Proceedings of the 2008 conference on Artificial Intelligence Research and Development: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference of the Catalan Association for Artificial Intelligence 8 (2008): 342–351.
  • Gonzalez Romero, Alejandro, René Alquezar, Arturo Ramirez, Francisco Gonzalez Acuòa, and Ian Garcia Olmedo. "Human-like Heuristics in Scrabble." In Proceedings of the 2009 conference on Artificial Intelligence Research and Development: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference of the Catalan Association for Artificial Intelligence, pp. 381-390. IOS Press, 2009.
  • Gordon, Steven A. "A Faster Scrabble Move Generation Algorithm." Software—Practice and Experience 24, no. 2 (1994): 219–232.
  • Gordon, Steven. "A comparison between probabilistic search and weighted heuristics in a game with incomplete information." In Working Notes AAAI Fall Symposium on Games: Planning and Learning. 1993.
  • Halck, Ole Martin, and Fredrik A. Dahl. "On classification of games and evaluation of players–with some sweeping generalizations about the literature." In Proceedings of the ICML-99 Workshop on Machine Learning in Game Playing, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana. 1999.
  • Lampis, Michael, Valia Mitsou, and Karolina Sołtys. "Scrabble is PSPACE-Complete." In Fun with Algorithms, pp. 258-269. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012.
  • McGrath, P., and B. Tangney. "Scrabble-a distributed application with an emphasis on continuity." Software Engineering Journal 5, no. 3 (1990): 160–164.
  • Richards, Mark, and Eyal Amir. "Opponent Modeling in Scrabble." In International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 1482-1487. 2007.
  • Robinove, Charles J. "Letter-frequency bias in an electronic Scrabble game." Chance 15, no. 1 (2002): 30-31.
  • Shapiro, Stuart C., and Howard R. Smith. A Scrabble crossword game-playing program. Springer New York, 1988.
  • Sheppard, Brian. "Towards Perfect Play of Scrabble." PhD diss., Universiteit Maastricht, 2002.
  • Sheppard, Brian. "World-championship-caliber Scrabble." Artificial Intelligence 134 no. 1–2 (2002): 241–275.
  • Turcan, P. "A competitive scrabble program." SIGART Newsletter 80 (1982): 104–109.


Other Medicine

Other Sciences

  • Dessors, Dominique. "L'intelligence pratique = The practical intelligence." Travailler, no. 29 (2009): 61–68.
  • Hebblethwaite, Benjamin. "Scrabble as a tool for Haitian Creole literacy: Sociolinguistic and orthographic foundations." Journal of Pidgin and Creole languages 24, no. 2 (2009): 275–305.
  • Knappett, Carl. "Photographs, Skeuomorphs and Marionettes Some Thoughts on Mind, Agency and Object." Journal of material culture 7, no. 1 (2002): 97-117.
  • Mahoney, A., and J. A. Rydberg-Cox. "A note on Scrabble in Latin." Classical Outlook 78, no. 2 (2001): 58-60.
  • Murray, Thomas E. "The words of Scrabble." American Speech 60, no. 2 (1985): 126-140.
  • Polak, J. J. "The Economics of Scrabble." The American Economic Review 45, no. 4 (1955): 648-652.
  • Quinn, Robert J., and Lynda R. Wiest. "Reinventing Scrabble with Middle School Students." Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School 5, no. 4 (1999): 210-13.
  • Richardson, Mary, John Gabrosek, Diann Reischman, and Phyllis Curtiss. "Morse code, scrabble, and the alphabet." Journal of Statistics Education 12, no. 3 (2004): n3.
  • Shulman, David, and Joseph Leonard. "More on the Words of Scrabble." American Speech 61.4 (1986): 338-339.